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1. Introduction

Recently, Poklonov et al. Moreover, Tseng et al.

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In order to evaluate the precipitate size, transmission electron microscopy TEM measurements were conducted and results are presented in Fig. Grain boundaries are highlighted by red lines. The inset in c shows an inverse pole figure of the tested compression sample plotted with respect to the loading direction. It was shown, that the addition of small amounts of a single element, that is, 1. In light of these findings, it seems to be feasible to transfer the idea of addition of small amounts of further elements to other alloy systems, showing AGG induced by a CHT, to tailor the AGG rates.

The experimentally determined grain boundary migration rate of 1.

Iron Alloys - Chemistry for All - The Fuse School

In contrast, the average grain size in Fe—Mn—Al—Ni—Cr hardly changed as compared to the solution treated condition. Thereby, a strongly decreased subgrain size was obtained resulting in a higher driving force for AGG. This is consistent with results calculated based on a model for grain growth processes in cellular microstructures. In contrast, it is very likely that the inhibited grain boundary migration rate in Fe—Mn—Al—Ni—Cr is imposed by formation of relative large LDZs of subgrains found in this condition.

No additional aging step was required. All samples were sealed into quartz tubes under argon atmosphere for the heat treatments. The sequences for the heat treatments are shown in Supplementary Fig. For in situ measurements, a digital microscope equipped with a tele-zoom objective was mounted in front of the servo hydraulic testing machine. A counting time of 0. Grain sizes and subgrain sizes were evaluated based on optical micrographs grain sizes and EBSD IQ maps subgrain sizes , respectively, using the linear intercept method ISO Several samples with eight line segments per sample were used for the grain size determination of each condition.

For investigations of grain size distributions, grain boundaries were determined from optical micrographs of characteristic samples. The area of each grain was evaluated using the software ImageJ.

Afterwards, grains were sorted according to their area and grouped into area classes. The frequency was calculated from the number of grains in a class in relation to the number of all grains. The area fraction was calculated based on the ratio of the accumulated area of the grains in a class and the total area of the investigated sample. From this, mean average misorientations were calculated as follows:. According to ISO , points falling on the boundary as well as points with a doubt were counted as one-half.

The datasets generated and analyzed during the current study are available from the corresponding author on reasonable request. Humphreys, F. Neuhaus, D. Industrial silicon wafer solar cells.

Lee, J. Adnyana, D.

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The Structures of Alloys of Iron

Pseudoelastic cycling of ultra-fine-grained NiTi shape-memory wires. Prokoshkin, S. Structure and properties of severely cold-rolled and annealed Ti—Ni shape memory alloys. A , — Frotscher, M. Microstructure and structural fatigue of ultra-fine grained NiTi-stents. A , 96—98 Frenzel, J. Improvement of NiTi shape memory actuator performance through ultra-fine grained and nanocrystalline microstructures. Burow, J. Martensitic transformations and functional stability in ultra-fine grained NiTi Shape memory alloys.

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Effect of grain size and texture on pseudoelasticity in Cu—Al—Mn-based shape memory wire. Grain size dependence of pseudoelasticity in polycrystalline Cu—Al—Mn-based shape memory sheets. Liu, J. The roles of grain orientation and grain boundary characteristics in the enhanced superelasticity of Cu Vollmer, M. Damage evolution in pseudoelastic polycrystalline Co—Ni—Ga high-temperature shape memory alloys.

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The Structures of Alloys of Iron: An Elementary Introduction

Superelasticity , 2 Tanaka, Y. Ferrous polycrystalline shape-memory alloy showing huge superelasticity. Science New York, NY , — Chumlyakov, Y. Tseng, L. Omori, T. Lee, D. Superelasticity , Superelastic effect in polycrystalline ferrous alloys.