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Managing New Zealand’s Environmental Diversity

The recently-retired environment researcher and lecturer was well known for his sceptical views on anthropogenic climate change — frequently arguing that the potential impacts of warming had been misunderstood, misinterpreted and distorted — which often made him a controversial and criticised figure within the science community. His students appreciated him for an enthusiastic lecturing style, his high expectations that they should think critically and design their investigations well, and he was known to be generous in support of their research endeavours.

His research and writing continue to have an impact in the fields of climatology, bioclimatology and environmental change through the many journal publications and books he wrote during over his long career. Prominent NZ skeptical scientist Dr. Chris de Freitas dies Read the Full Article.

The world's most viewed site on global warming and climate change

Statistically this means the trend is indistinguishable from zero' De Freitas was part of original dissenting scientists : Climate scientist Dr. After completing this course, we expect you to have gained the following: An understanding of key concepts in contemporary resource and environmental management. The ability to assess critically the methodologies and underlying assumptions used in resource and environmental management.

An understanding of the socio-political and biophysical contexts in which resource and environmental management operates. Any 30 points of level geography, or entry with the approval of the Head of Department. Eric Pawson. It is hoped that it will arrive in the library during course time. Memon, P. Miller, C. L; Implementing sustainability : the New Zealand experience ; Routledge, Mitchell, Bruce; Resource and environmental management ; Longman, Skip to main content. Return to the homepage collapse. Search this site Show search. Get Started. What is special about UC? Study Akoranga.

Life at UC. Support services Tautoko. Support services. In , there was a nuclear accident in Chernobyl , Ukraine. The end of the s and start of the s saw the fall of communism across central and Eastern Europe, the fall of the [Berlin Wall], and the Union of East and West Germany. The Kyoto Protocol was created in which set specific targets and deadlines to reduce global greenhouse gas emissions.

In the early s activists believed that environmental policy concerns were overshadowed by energy security, globalism, and terrorism. The environmental movement is reachin the less developed world with different degrees of success. The Arab world , including the Middle East and North Africa , has different adaptations of the environmental movement. Countries on the Persian Gulf have high incomes and rely heavily on the large amount of energy resources in the area.

Each country in the Arab world has varying combinations of low or high amounts of natural resources and low or high amounts of labor. The League of Arab States has one specialized sub-committee, of 12 standing specialized subcommittee in the Foreign Affairs Ministerial Committees, which deals with Environmental Issues. Countries in the League of Arab States have demonstrated an interest in environmental issue, on paper some environmental activists have doubts about the level of commitment to environmental issues;; being a part of the world community may have obliged these countries to portray concern for the environment.

Initial level of environmental awareness may be the creation of a ministry of the environment. The year of establishment of a ministry is also indicative of level of engagement.

Saudi Arabia was the first to establish environmental law in followed by Egypt in Somalia is the only country without environmental law. The Environmental Performance Index measures the ability of a country to actively manage and protect their environment and the health of their citizens. No Arab countries were in the top quartile, and 7 countries were in the lowest quartile. South Korea and Taiwan experienced similar growth in industrialization from with few environmental controls.

Taiwan's formula for balanced growth was to prevent industrial concentration and encourage manufacturers to set up in the countryside.


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Both countries had spontaneous environmental movements drawing participants from different classes. Their demands were linked with issues of employment, occupational health, and agricultural crisis. They were also quite militant; the people learned that protesting can bring results. The polluting factories were forced to make immediate improvements of the conditions or pay compensation to victims.

Some were even forced to shut down or move locations. The people were able to force the government to come out with new restrictive rules on toxins, industrial waste, and air pollution. All of these new regulations caused the migration of those polluting industries from Taiwan and South Korea to China and other countries in Southeast Asia with more relaxed environmental laws. China's environmental movement is characterized by both the rise of environmental NGOs and policy advocacy and spontaneous alliances and protests that often only occur at the local level. Protests cover topics such as environmental issues, land loss , income, and political issues.

They have also grown in size from about 10 people or fewer in the mids to 52 people per incident in China has more relaxed environmental laws than other countries in Asia, so many polluting factories have relocated to China causing pollution in China. Water pollution , water scarcity , soil pollution , soil degradation , and desertification are issues currently in discussion in China.

The groundwater table of the North China Plain is dropping by 1. Comparing the experiend of China, South Korea, Japan and Taiwan reveals that the impact of environmental activism is heavily modified by domestic political context, particularly the level of integration of mass-based protests and policy advocacy NGOs.


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Hinted by the history of neighboring Japan and South Korea, the possible convergence of NGOs and anti-pollution protests will have significant implications for Chinese environmental politics in the coming years. Environmental and public health is an ongoing struggle within India. The first seed of an environmental movement in India was the foundation in of Dasholi Gram Swarajya Sangh , a labour cooperative started by Chandi Prasad Bhatt.

It was inaugurated by Sucheta Kriplani and founded on a land donated by Shyma Devi. This initiative was eventually followed up with the Chipko movement starting in The most severe single event underpinning the movement was the Bhopal gas leakage on 3 December India has a national campaign against Coca-Cola and Pepsi Cola plants due to their practices of drawing ground water and contaminating fields with sludge.

The movement is characterized by local struggles against intensive aquaculture farms.

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Book New Environmentalism: Managing New Zealand’S Environmental Diversity

The most influential part of the environmental movement in India is the anti-dam movement. Dam creation has been thought of as a way for India to catch up with the West by connecting to the power grid with giant dams, coal or oil-powered plants, or nuclear plants. Activists in the Indian environmental movement consider global warming, sea levels rising, and glaciers retreating decreasing the amount of water flowing into streams to be the biggest challenges for them to face in the early twenty-first century.

The pioneer of Eco Revolution movement is Prof. Priyanand Agale [47] [48] [49] [50] [51] [52] [53] more than 20, youths associated with this movement to strengthen this movement Eco Needs Foundation organized mass environmental awareness programmes. To sought participation of children, Youths, researchers, spiritual and political leaders. Foundation had conducted International conferences at India Eco Revolution [54] which concluded with Aurangabad Declaration for River Conservation. Eco Revolution [58] was conducted at Nepal which concluded with the Phokhara Declaration for effect of climate change at high altitude.

Foundation launched the world's first environmental social networking site ecoface. He said Tipaimukh Dam project will be another "death trap for Bangladesh like the Farakka Barrage ," that would lead to an environmental disaster for 50 million people in the Meghna River basin.

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He said that this project will start desertification in Bangladesh. Environmental science is the study of the interactions among the physical, chemical and biological components of the environment. The environmental movement is broad in scope and can include any topic related to the environment, conservation, and biology, as well as preservation of landscapes, flora, and fauna for a variety of purposes and uses. See List of environmental issues. When an act of violence is committed against someone or some institution in the name of environmental defense it is referred to as eco terrorism.

Many environmental lawsuits question the legal rights of property owners, and whether the general public has a right to intervene with detrimental practices occurring on someone else's land.

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Environmental law organizations exist all across the world, such as the Environmental Law and Policy Center in the midwestern United States. One of the earliest lawsuits to establish that citizens may sue for environmental and aesthetic harms was Scenic Hudson Preservation Conference v.

Environmentalism as Adaptive Management

See also United States environmental law and David Sive , an attorney who was involved in the case. Christopher D. Stone's essay, "Should trees have standing? In the essay, Stone suggests that his argument is valid because many current rightsholders women, children were once seen as objects. Numerous criticisms and ethical ambiguities have led to growing concerns about technology, including the use of potentially harmful pesticides , water additives like fluoride , and the extremely dangerous ethanol -processing plants.

NIMBY syndrome refers to public outcry caused by knee-jerk reaction to an unwillingness to be exposed to even necessary developments. Some serious biologists and ecologists created the scientific ecology movement which would not confuse empirical data with visions of a desirable future world. Today, the sciences of ecology and environmental science , in addition to any aesthetic goals, provide the basis of unity to some of the serious environmentalists.

As more information is gathered in scientific fields, more scientific issues like biodiversity , as opposed to mere aesthetics, are a concern to environmentalists. Conservation biology is a rapidly developing field.

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In recent years, the environmental movement has increasingly focused on global warming as one of the top issues. As concerns about climate change moved more into the mainstream, from the connections drawn between global warming and Hurricane Katrina to Al Gore 's documentary film An Inconvenient Truth , more and more environmental groups refocused their efforts.

In the United States, witnessed the largest grassroots environmental demonstration in years, Step It Up , with rallies in over 1, communities and all 50 states for real global warming solutions. Many religious organizations and individual churches now have programs and activities dedicated to environmental issues. Radical environmentalism emerged from an ecocentrism -based frustration with the co-option of mainstream environmentalism.

The radical environmental movement aspires to what scholar Christopher Manes calls "a new kind of environmental activism: iconoclastic, uncompromising, discontented with traditional conservation policy, at times illegal Groups like Earth First! Some radical environmentalist groups, like Earth First! Conservative critics of the movement characterize it as radical and misguided. Especially critics of the United States Endangered Species Act , which has come under scrutiny lately, and the Clean Air Act, which they said conflict with private property rights, corporate profits and the nation's overall economic growth.

Critics also challenge the scientific evidence for global warming. They argue that the environmental movement has diverted attention from more pressing issues. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. See also: Environmentalism.