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Fincher GB a Revolutionary times in our understanding of cell wall biosynthesis and remodeling in the grasses.


Plant Physiol —37 Google Scholar. Fincher GB b Exploring the evolution of 1,3;1,4 -beta- d -glucans in plant cell walls: comparative genomics can help! Elsevier, Oxford, pp — Google Scholar. Physiol Plant —3 Google Scholar.

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  • The Biosynthesis and Function of Polysaccharide Components of the Plant Cell Wall.
  • Plant Cell Wall Polysaccharides: Structure and Biosynthesis?
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Rhamnogalacturonan I, a structurally complex pectic polysaccharide in the walls of suspension-cultured sycamore cells.

Biosynthesis of plant cell wall polysaccharides--a complex process [2006]

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The Biosynthesis of Cellulose and Other Plant Cell Wall Polysaccharides | SpringerLink

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Biosynthesis of plant cell wall polysaccharides - a complex process.

Ozawa M, Baribault H, Kemler R The cytoplasmic domain of the cell adhesion molecule uvomorulin associates with three independent proteins structurally related in different species. Pauly M, Scheller HV O -acetylation of plant cell wall polysaccharides: identification and partial characterization of a rhamnogalacturonan O -acetyl transferase from potato suspension-cultured cells. In fungi, the cell wall is the outer-most layer, external to the plasma membrane.

The fungal cell wall is a matrix of three main components: [16]. Like plants, algae have cell walls. The inclusion of additional polysaccharides in algal cells walls is used as a feature for algal taxonomy. Other compounds that may accumulate in algal cell walls include sporopollenin and calcium ions. The group of algae known as the diatoms synthesize their cell walls also known as frustules or valves from silicic acid. In brown algae , phlorotannins may be a constituent of the cell walls. The group Oomycetes , also known as water molds, are saprotrophic plant pathogens like fungi.

Until recently they were widely believed to be fungi, but structural and molecular evidence [33] has led to their reclassification as heterokonts , related to autotrophic brown algae and diatoms. Unlike fungi, oomycetes typically possess cell walls of cellulose and glucans rather than chitin, although some genera such as Achlya and Saprolegnia do have chitin in their walls. The dictyostelids are another group formerly classified among the fungi.

AP Biology - Plant Cell Wall

They are slime molds that feed as unicellular amoebae , but aggregate into a reproductive stalk and sporangium under certain conditions. Cells of the reproductive stalk, as well as the spores formed at the apex, possess a cellulose wall. Around the outside of the cell membrane is the bacterial cell wall. Bacterial cell walls are made of peptidoglycan also called murein , which is made from polysaccharide chains cross-linked by unusual peptides containing D- amino acids. The cell wall is essential to the survival of many bacteria, although L-form bacteria can be produced in the laboratory that lack a cell wall. There are broadly speaking two different types of cell wall in bacteria, called gram-positive and gram-negative. The names originate from the reaction of cells to the Gram stain , a test long-employed for the classification of bacterial species.

Gram-positive bacteria possess a thick cell wall containing many layers of peptidoglycan and teichoic acids. In contrast, gram-negative bacteria have a relatively thin cell wall consisting of a few layers of peptidoglycan surrounded by a second lipid membrane containing lipopolysaccharides and lipoproteins. Although not truly unique, the cell walls of Archaea are unusual. Whereas peptidoglycan is a standard component of all bacterial cell walls, all archaeal cell walls lack peptidoglycan , [42] though some methanogens have a cell wall made of a similar polymer called pseudopeptidoglycan.

One type of archaeal cell wall is that composed of pseudopeptidoglycan also called pseudomurein. This type of wall is found in some methanogens , such as Methanobacterium and Methanothermus. Like the peptidoglycan found in bacterial cell walls, pseudopeptidoglycan consists of polymer chains of glycan cross-linked by short peptide connections. Additionally, the cross-linking peptides are L-amino acids rather than D-amino acids as they are in bacteria.

A second type of archaeal cell wall is found in Methanosarcina and Halococcus.