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Sort by relevance relevance newest oldest title. A co-immobilization of pectinase and cellulase onto magnetic nanoparticles for antioxidant extraction from waste fruit peels. A comprehensive review on Phyllanthus derived natural products as potential chemotherapeutic and immunomodulators for a wide range of human diseases. Albacore tuna spleen trypsin: Potential application as laundry detergent additive and in carotenoprotein extraction from Pacific white shrimp shells.

An efficient nucleic acids extraction protocol for Elettaria cardamomum. Anti-candidal biofilm potential of solvent extracts of Aeollanthus cucullathus Ryding and its chemical analysis. Antioxidant and functional properties of protein hydrolysates obtained from starry triggerfish muscle using trypsin from albacore tuna liver. Antioxidants of Salvia aegyptiaca L.

Biobleaching for pulp and paper industry in India: Emerging enzyme technology. Antioxidant and functional properties of protein hydrolysates obtained from starry triggerfish muscle using trypsin from albacore tuna liver. Antioxidants of Salvia aegyptiaca L. Biobleaching for pulp and paper industry in India: Emerging enzyme technology.

Biochemical characterization and homology modelling of cold-active alkophilic protease from Northwestern Himalayas and its application in detergent industry. Biodegradation of polyethylene terephthalate waste using Streptomyces species and kinetic modeling of the process. Biodegradation of pyridine raffinate using bacterial laccase isolated from garden soil. Biodegradation of triphenylmethane dye malachite green by a newly isolated fungus strain. Bioinspired biomaterials and enzyme-based biosensors for point-of-care applications with reference to cancer and bio-imaging.

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Biological control of black pepper and ginger pathogens, Fusarium oxysporum, Rhizoctonia solani and Phytophthora capsici, using Trichoderma spp. Biosynthesis and biomedical perspectives of carotenoids with special reference to human health-related applications. Use of bioreactors containing plant cells immobilized on or inside membranes and beads is one approach to improve productivity. In this paper, several examples of immobilized plant cell cultures are presented.

Data on growth characteristics and kinetics of product formation for suspended free and immobilized cells are shown. Different biological and process engineering approaches to enhance product synthesis have been demonstrated.

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Problems of scaling up these cultures are discussed. This level of expression was not increased by exogenous gibberellic acid, nor was expression reduced by the gibberellin biosynthesis inhibitor paclobutrazol. This low expression in Tan-ginbozu callus, however, was not increased by exogenous gibberellic acid. The sperm enzyme acrosin functions in sperm binding to, and penetration of, the egg zona pellucida. Acrosin is a three domain glycoenzyme, possessing a serine active site protease, a hydrophobic binding domain, and a recently described carbohydrate fucose binding domain; it is the first described lectin-protease.

Its functional properties, including activation of a proenzyme as well as subsequent processing and separation of its three functional domains, are controlled via limited proteolysis autolysis. Structure-function models for acrosin are presented. Functional membrane-bound forms of the lectin-protease are proposed which both hydrolyze and bind carbohydrate or just bind carbohydrate. Acrosin's properties provide for sperm binding and progressive penetration of the zona pellucida, essential cellular steps in the fertilization process.

Applications of enzymatic detection systems in the context of diagnostics are presented in this article.

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An overview of detection systems, including those based on non-enzymatic markers such as radioactive, fluorescent and particulate labels, is discussed initially. Direct and indirect strategies for applying detection systems are also presented with respect to the identification of immunoglobulin and nucleic acid probe molecules. Enzymatic detection systems are discussed with an emphasis on chromogenic enzyme reactions. Methods of designing enzymatic assays often involve using molecular bridges between enzyme molecules and the probe species; immunodetection is discussed in this context as well as procedures for attaching immunodetectable moieties to probe molecules.

Finally, current and potential developments which may improve the application of enzymatic detection systems are briefly outlined.

What is AGRICULTURAL BIOTECHNOLOGY? What does AGRICULTURAL BIOTECHNOLOGY mean?

The primary products of agriculture are biological materials; therefore, the use of enzymes as processing aids and analytical tools would seem to be a natural consequence. Nevertheless, the number of enzymes actually used commercially is quite small in comparison with the total number of enzymes which have been characterized. Essentially, only hydrolases have been extensively developed as processing catalysts and analytical reagents, although there are certain important exceptions including isomerases, lyases and oxidases.

Enzymes can be used in either soluble or immobilized forms. In some cases, use of soluble enzymes requires incorporation of a subsequent inactivation step.

Biocatalysis and Agricultural Biotechnology

Immobilized enzymes provide opportunities for process control and automation, and may stabilize the catalyst to conditions required in a given process. However, the operation of an immobilized enzyme bioreactor must be compatible with the entire process, and a bioreactor's half-life must be sufficiently long to compensate for its added cost. The recent advent of recombinant DNA technology and site-directed mutagenesis should increase the potential for using enzymes of greater stability and modified specificities.

Haloxyfop, an aryloxyphenoxypropanoate, and tralkoxydim, a cyclohexanedione, inhibit acetyl coenzyme A carboxylase ACCase from moncotyledoneous and dicotyledoneous species in a manner indicating that this enzyme is the target site for these classes of herbicides. The I50 values correlate very well with the herbicidal activity of theses compounds except for wheat, which is resistant to tralkoxydim. The herbicidally inactive S - enantiomer of haloxyfop did not inhibit maize ACCase.

ALS is the first common enzyme in the biosynthetic route to valine, leucine and isoleucine. It is the site of action for the triazolopyrimidine TP herbicides as well as the sulfonylureas SU and imidazolinones IM.


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These compounds act on the meristem and are slow to bring about plant death. Hence the opportunity to use metabolism of these herbicides to impart crop selectivity has been exploited successfully. Additions of valine, leucine, and isoleucine were found to relieve the growth inhibitory effects of TP on Bacillus cell cultures, soybean cell cultures, and Arabidopsis seedlings. The barley enzyme has been amenable to purification.


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The interaction of TP with ALS is non-covalent and the inhibition is of a mixed type with respect to pyruvate. Like IM and SU, TP is a slow, tight binding inhibitor with a much greater affinity for the steady state complex than the free enzyme. Mutants of tobacco and soybean resistant to TP have been isolated in tissue culture. During the last several decades, traditional approaches to host-plant resistance have shown that a number of plant natural products act as constitutive bases of resistance against insects.

More recently, it has been realized that plant resistance against insects also consists of inducible and dynamic elements triggered by insect-feeding damage. These inducible elements of resistance have been found to be both plant enzymes and their end-products. The potential use of such enzymes and their products as bases of resistance against insects is discussed. The metabolic pathways by which insects produce hydrocarbons have been documented in several species.

The methyl-branched hydrocarbons arise from the substitution of methylmalonyl-CoA for malonyl-CoA at specific points during chain elongation. The methylmalonyl-CoA arises from the carbon skeleton of valine and isoleucine in a cockroach and the housefly and from succinate in a termite. The microsomal elongation reactions have been characterized in the American cockroach and the common housefly, and show a high degree of specificity according to the degree of unsaturation of the fatty acyl-CoA substrates and the carbon chain length of the products.

A large number of moth sex pheromones are biosynthesized from common fatty acids by pathways involving three reactions: chain shortening, desaturation, and reduction. The chain shortening occurs in units of two carbons, while the desaturation may take place at the , or positions. The acid group is reduced to the aldehyde or alcohol, and the alcohol may be acetylated. The specificity of blends of compounds used for pheromone communication by Lepidoptera species is the result of essentially two distinct sets of biosynthetic enzymes which regulate the production of specific olefinic bonds and synthesis of the oxygenated functional moiety, respectively.

In Heliothis moths the regulatory systems that are responsible for production of the functional group during the final stages of pheromone biosynthesis consist of cellular acetate esterases and extracellular alcohol oxidases.